Genode Packages collection
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#! /somewhere/python3
# Copyright (c) 2003-2020 Nixpkgs/NixOS contributors
from contextlib import contextmanager, _GeneratorContextManager
from queue import Queue, Empty
from typing import Tuple, Any, Callable, Dict, Iterator, Optional, List
from xml.sax.saxutils import XMLGenerator
import queue
import io
import _thread
import argparse
import atexit
import base64
import codecs
import os
import pathlib
import ptpython.repl
import pty
import re
import shlex
import shutil
import socket
import subprocess
import sys
import tempfile
import time
import traceback
import unicodedata
"A": "shift-a",
"N": "shift-n",
"-": "0x0C",
"_": "shift-0x0C",
"B": "shift-b",
"O": "shift-o",
"=": "0x0D",
"+": "shift-0x0D",
"C": "shift-c",
"P": "shift-p",
"[": "0x1A",
"{": "shift-0x1A",
"D": "shift-d",
"Q": "shift-q",
"]": "0x1B",
"}": "shift-0x1B",
"E": "shift-e",
"R": "shift-r",
";": "0x27",
":": "shift-0x27",
"F": "shift-f",
"S": "shift-s",
"'": "0x28",
'"': "shift-0x28",
"G": "shift-g",
"T": "shift-t",
"`": "0x29",
"~": "shift-0x29",
"H": "shift-h",
"U": "shift-u",
"\\": "0x2B",
"|": "shift-0x2B",
"I": "shift-i",
"V": "shift-v",
",": "0x33",
"<": "shift-0x33",
"J": "shift-j",
"W": "shift-w",
".": "0x34",
">": "shift-0x34",
"K": "shift-k",
"X": "shift-x",
"/": "0x35",
"?": "shift-0x35",
"L": "shift-l",
"Y": "shift-y",
" ": "spc",
"M": "shift-m",
"Z": "shift-z",
"\n": "ret",
"!": "shift-0x02",
"@": "shift-0x03",
"#": "shift-0x04",
"$": "shift-0x05",
"%": "shift-0x06",
"^": "shift-0x07",
"&": "shift-0x08",
"*": "shift-0x09",
"(": "shift-0x0A",
")": "shift-0x0B",
# Forward references
log: "Logger"
machines: "List[Machine]"
def eprint(*args: object, **kwargs: Any) -> None:
print(*args, file=sys.stderr, **kwargs)
def make_command(args: list) -> str:
return " ".join(map(shlex.quote, (map(str, args))))
def create_vlan(vlan_nr: str) -> Tuple[str, str, "subprocess.Popen[bytes]", Any]:
global log
log.log("starting VDE switch for network {}".format(vlan_nr))
vde_socket = tempfile.mkdtemp(
prefix="nixos-test-vde-", suffix="-vde{}.ctl".format(vlan_nr)
pty_master, pty_slave = pty.openpty()
vde_process = subprocess.Popen(
["vde_switch", "-s", vde_socket, "--dirmode", "0700"],
fd = os.fdopen(pty_master, "w")
# TODO: perl version checks if this can be read from
# an if not, dies. we could hang here forever. Fix it.
assert vde_process.stdout is not None
if not os.path.exists(os.path.join(vde_socket, "ctl")):
raise Exception("cannot start vde_switch")
return (vlan_nr, vde_socket, vde_process, fd)
def retry(fn: Callable) -> None:
"""Call the given function repeatedly, with 1 second intervals,
until it returns True or a timeout is reached.
for _ in range(900):
if fn(False):
if not fn(True):
raise Exception("action timed out")
class Logger:
def __init__(self) -> None:
self.logfile = os.environ.get("LOGFILE", "/dev/null")
self.logfile_handle =, "wb")
self.xml = XMLGenerator(self.logfile_handle, encoding="utf-8")
self.queue: "Queue[Dict[str, str]]" = Queue()
self.xml.startElement("logfile", attrs={})
def close(self) -> None:
def sanitise(self, message: str) -> str:
return "".join(ch for ch in message if unicodedata.category(ch)[0] != "C")
def maybe_prefix(self, message: str, attributes: Dict[str, str]) -> str:
if "machine" in attributes:
return "{}: {}".format(attributes["machine"], message)
return message
def log_line(self, message: str, attributes: Dict[str, str]) -> None:
self.xml.startElement("line", attributes)
def log(self, message: str, attributes: Dict[str, str] = {}) -> None:
eprint(self.maybe_prefix(message, attributes))
self.log_line(message, attributes)
def enqueue(self, message: Dict[str, str]) -> None:
def drain_log_queue(self) -> None:
while True:
item = self.queue.get_nowait()
attributes = {"machine": item["machine"], "type": "serial"}
self.log_line(self.sanitise(item["msg"]), attributes)
except Empty:
def nested(self, message: str, attributes: Dict[str, str] = {}) -> Iterator[None]:
eprint(self.maybe_prefix(message, attributes))
self.xml.startElement("nest", attrs={})
self.xml.startElement("head", attributes)
tic = time.time()
toc = time.time()
self.log("({:.2f} seconds)".format(toc - tic))
class Machine:
def __init__(self, args: Dict[str, Any]) -> None:
if "name" in args: = args["name"]
else: = "machine"
cmd = args.get("startCommand", None)
if cmd:
match ="bin/run-(.+)-vm$", cmd)
if match: =
self.script = args.get("startCommand", self.create_startcommand(args))
tmp_dir = os.environ.get("TMPDIR", tempfile.gettempdir())
def create_dir(name: str) -> str:
path = os.path.join(tmp_dir, name)
os.makedirs(path, mode=0o700, exist_ok=True)
return path
self.state_dir = create_dir("vm-state-{}".format(
self.shared_dir = create_dir("shared-xchg")
self.booted = False
self.connected = False Optional[int] = None
self.socket = None
self.monitor: Optional[socket.socket] = None
self.logger: Logger = args["log"]
self.serialQueue: "Queue[str]" = Queue()
self.allow_reboot = args.get("allowReboot", False)
def create_startcommand(args: Dict[str, str]) -> str:
net_backend = "-netdev user,id=net0"
net_frontend = "-device virtio-net-pci,netdev=net0"
if "netBackendArgs" in args:
net_backend += "," + args["netBackendArgs"]
if "netFrontendArgs" in args:
net_frontend += "," + args["netFrontendArgs"]
start_command = (
"qemu-kvm -m 384 " + net_backend + " " + net_frontend + " $QEMU_OPTS "
if "hda" in args:
hda_path = os.path.abspath(args["hda"])
if args.get("hdaInterface", "") == "scsi":
start_command += (
"-drive id=hda,file="
+ hda_path
+ ",werror=report,if=none "
+ "-device scsi-hd,drive=hda "
start_command += (
"-drive file="
+ hda_path
+ ",if="
+ args["hdaInterface"]
+ ",werror=report "
if "cdrom" in args:
start_command += "-cdrom " + args["cdrom"] + " "
if "usb" in args:
start_command += (
"-device piix3-usb-uhci -drive "
+ "id=usbdisk,file="
+ args["usb"]
+ ",if=none,readonly "
+ "-device usb-storage,drive=usbdisk "
if "bios" in args:
start_command += "-bios " + args["bios"] + " "
start_command += args.get("qemuFlags", "")
return start_command
def is_up(self) -> bool:
return self.booted and self.connected
def log(self, msg: str) -> None:
self.logger.log(msg, {"machine":})
def nested(self, msg: str, attrs: Dict[str, str] = {}) -> _GeneratorContextManager:
my_attrs = {"machine":}
return self.logger.nested(msg, my_attrs)
def wait_for_monitor_prompt(self) -> str:
assert self.monitor is not None
answer = ""
while True:
undecoded_answer = self.monitor.recv(1024)
if not undecoded_answer:
answer += undecoded_answer.decode()
if answer.endswith("(qemu) "):
return answer
def send_monitor_command(self, command: str) -> str:
message = ("{}\n".format(command)).encode()
self.log("sending monitor command: {}".format(command))
assert self.monitor is not None
return self.wait_for_monitor_prompt()
def wait_for_unit(self, unit: str, user: Optional[str] = None) -> None:
"""Wait for a systemd unit to get into "active" state.
Throws exceptions on "failed" and "inactive" states as well as
after timing out.
def check_active(_: Any) -> bool:
info = self.get_unit_info(unit, user)
state = info["ActiveState"]
if state == "failed":
raise Exception('unit "{}" reached state "{}"'.format(unit, state))
if state == "inactive":
status, jobs = self.systemctl("list-jobs --full 2>&1", user)
if "No jobs" in jobs:
info = self.get_unit_info(unit, user)
if info["ActiveState"] == state:
raise Exception(
'unit "{}" is inactive and there ' "are no pending jobs"
return state == "active"
def get_unit_info(self, unit: str, user: Optional[str] = None) -> Dict[str, str]:
status, lines = self.systemctl('--no-pager show "{}"'.format(unit), user)
if status != 0:
raise Exception(
'retrieving systemctl info for unit "{}" {} failed with exit code {}'.format(
unit, "" if user is None else 'under user "{}"'.format(user), status
line_pattern = re.compile(r"^([^=]+)=(.*)$")
def tuple_from_line(line: str) -> Tuple[str, str]:
match = line_pattern.match(line)
assert match is not None
return match[1], match[2]
return dict(
for line in lines.split("\n")
if line_pattern.match(line)
def systemctl(self, q: str, user: Optional[str] = None) -> Tuple[int, str]:
if user is not None:
q = q.replace("'", "\\'")
return self.execute(
"su -l {} --shell /bin/sh -c "
"$'XDG_RUNTIME_DIR=/run/user/`id -u` "
"systemctl --user {}'"
).format(user, q)
return self.execute("systemctl {}".format(q))
def require_unit_state(self, unit: str, require_state: str = "active") -> None:
with self.nested(
"checking if unit ‘{}’ has reached state '{}'".format(unit, require_state)
info = self.get_unit_info(unit)
state = info["ActiveState"]
if state != require_state:
raise Exception(
"Expected unit ‘{}’ to to be in state ".format(unit)
+ "'{}' but it is in state ‘{}".format(require_state, state)
def execute(self, command: str) -> Tuple[int, str]:
out_command = "( {} ); echo '|!=EOF' $?\n".format(command)
output = ""
status_code_pattern = re.compile(r"(.*)\|\!=EOF\s+(\d+)")
while True:
chunk ="ignore")
match = status_code_pattern.match(chunk)
if match:
output += match[1]
status_code = int(match[2])
return (status_code, output)
output += chunk
def succeed(self, *commands: str) -> str:
"""Execute each command and check that it succeeds."""
output = ""
for command in commands:
with self.nested("must succeed: {}".format(command)):
(status, out) = self.execute(command)
if status != 0:
self.log("output: {}".format(out))
raise Exception(
"command `{}` failed (exit code {})".format(command, status)
output += out
return output
def fail(self, *commands: str) -> None:
"""Execute each command and check that it fails."""
for command in commands:
with self.nested("must fail: {}".format(command)):
status, output = self.execute(command)
if status == 0:
raise Exception(
"command `{}` unexpectedly succeeded".format(command)
def wait_until_succeeds(self, command: str) -> str:
"""Wait until a command returns success and return its output.
Throws an exception on timeout.
output = ""
def check_success(_: Any) -> bool:
nonlocal output
status, output = self.execute(command)
return status == 0
with self.nested("waiting for success: {}".format(command)):
return output
def wait_until_fails(self, command: str) -> str:
"""Wait until a command returns failure.
Throws an exception on timeout.
output = ""
def check_failure(_: Any) -> bool:
nonlocal output
status, output = self.execute(command)
return status != 0
with self.nested("waiting for failure: {}".format(command)):
return output
def wait_for_shutdown(self) -> None:
if not self.booted:
with self.nested("waiting for the VM to power off"):
self.process.wait() = None
self.booted = False
self.connected = False
def get_tty_text(self, tty: str) -> str:
status, output = self.execute(
"fold -w$(stty -F /dev/tty{0} size | "
"awk '{{print $2}}') /dev/vcs{0}".format(tty)
return output
def wait_until_tty_matches(self, tty: str, regexp: str) -> None:
"""Wait until the visible output on the chosen TTY matches regular
expression. Throws an exception on timeout.
matcher = re.compile(regexp)
def tty_matches(last: bool) -> bool:
text = self.get_tty_text(tty)
if last:
f"Last chance to match /{regexp}/ on TTY{tty}, "
f"which currently contains: {text}"
return len(matcher.findall(text)) > 0
with self.nested("waiting for {} to appear on tty {}".format(regexp, tty)):
def wait_until_serial_output(self, regexp: str) -> None:
"""Wait until the serial output matches regular expression.
Throws an exception on timeout.
matcher = re.compile(regexp)
def serial_matches(last: bool) -> bool:
while not self.serialQueue.empty():
text = self.serialQueue.get()
if last:
f"Last chance to match /{regexp}/ on serial, "
f"which currently contains: {text}"
if len(matcher.findall(text)) > 0:
return True
return False
with self.nested("waiting for {} to appear on serial output".format(regexp)):
def send_chars(self, chars: List[str]) -> None:
with self.nested("sending keys ‘{}".format(chars)):
for char in chars:
def wait_for_file(self, filename: str) -> None:
"""Waits until the file exists in machine's file system."""
def check_file(_: Any) -> bool:
status, _ = self.execute("test -e {}".format(filename))
return status == 0
with self.nested("waiting for file ‘{}".format(filename)):
def wait_for_open_port(self, port: int) -> None:
def port_is_open(_: Any) -> bool:
status, _ = self.execute("nc -z localhost {}".format(port))
return status == 0
with self.nested("waiting for TCP port {}".format(port)):
def wait_for_closed_port(self, port: int) -> None:
def port_is_closed(_: Any) -> bool:
status, _ = self.execute("nc -z localhost {}".format(port))
return status != 0
def start_job(self, jobname: str, user: Optional[str] = None) -> Tuple[int, str]:
return self.systemctl("start {}".format(jobname), user)
def stop_job(self, jobname: str, user: Optional[str] = None) -> Tuple[int, str]:
return self.systemctl("stop {}".format(jobname), user)
def wait_for_job(self, jobname: str) -> None:
def connect(self) -> None:
if self.connected:
with self.nested("waiting for the VM to finish booting"):
tic = time.time()
# TODO: Timeout
toc = time.time()
self.log("connected to guest root shell")
self.log("(connecting took {:.2f} seconds)".format(toc - tic))
self.connected = True
def screenshot(self, filename: str) -> None:
out_dir = os.environ.get("out", os.getcwd())
word_pattern = re.compile(r"^\w+$")
if word_pattern.match(filename):
filename = os.path.join(out_dir, "{}.png".format(filename))
tmp = "{}.ppm".format(filename)
with self.nested(
"making screenshot {}".format(filename),
{"image": os.path.basename(filename)},
self.send_monitor_command("screendump {}".format(tmp))
ret ="pnmtopng {} > {}".format(tmp, filename), shell=True)
if ret.returncode != 0:
raise Exception("Cannot convert screenshot")
def copy_from_host_via_shell(self, source: str, target: str) -> None:
"""Copy a file from the host into the guest by piping it over the
shell into the destination file. Works without host-guest shared folder.
Prefer copy_from_host for whenever possible.
with open(source, "rb") as fh:
content_b64 = base64.b64encode(
f"mkdir -p $(dirname {target})",
f"echo -n {content_b64} | base64 -d > {target}",
def copy_from_host(self, source: str, target: str) -> None:
"""Copy a file from the host into the guest via the `shared_dir` shared
among all the VMs (using a temporary directory).
host_src = pathlib.Path(source)
vm_target = pathlib.Path(target)
with tempfile.TemporaryDirectory(dir=self.shared_dir) as shared_td:
shared_temp = pathlib.Path(shared_td)
host_intermediate = shared_temp /
vm_shared_temp = pathlib.Path("/tmp/shared") /
vm_intermediate = vm_shared_temp /
self.succeed(make_command(["mkdir", "-p", vm_shared_temp]))
if host_src.is_dir():
shutil.copytree(host_src, host_intermediate)
shutil.copy(host_src, host_intermediate)
self.succeed(make_command(["mkdir", "-p", vm_target.parent]))
self.succeed(make_command(["cp", "-r", vm_intermediate, vm_target]))
# Make sure the cleanup is synced into VM
def copy_from_vm(self, source: str, target_dir: str = "") -> None:
"""Copy a file from the VM (specified by an in-VM source path) to a path
relative to `$out`. The file is copied via the `shared_dir` shared among
all the VMs (using a temporary directory).
# Compute the source, target, and intermediate shared file names
out_dir = pathlib.Path(os.environ.get("out", os.getcwd()))
vm_src = pathlib.Path(source)
with tempfile.TemporaryDirectory(dir=self.shared_dir) as shared_td:
shared_temp = pathlib.Path(shared_td)
vm_shared_temp = pathlib.Path("/tmp/shared") /
vm_intermediate = vm_shared_temp /
intermediate = shared_temp /
# Copy the file to the shared directory inside VM
self.succeed(make_command(["mkdir", "-p", vm_shared_temp]))
self.succeed(make_command(["cp", "-r", vm_src, vm_intermediate]))
abs_target = out_dir / target_dir /
abs_target.parent.mkdir(exist_ok=True, parents=True)
# Copy the file from the shared directory outside VM
if intermediate.is_dir():
shutil.copytree(intermediate, abs_target)
shutil.copy(intermediate, abs_target)
# Make sure the cleanup is synced into VM
def dump_tty_contents(self, tty: str) -> None:
"""Debugging: Dump the contents of the TTY<n>
self.execute("fold -w 80 /dev/vcs{} | systemd-cat".format(tty))
def get_screen_text(self) -> str:
if shutil.which("tesseract") is None:
raise Exception("get_screen_text used but enableOCR is false")
magick_args = (
"-filter Catrom -density 72 -resample 300 "
+ "-contrast -normalize -despeckle -type grayscale "
+ "-sharpen 1 -posterize 3 -negate -gamma 100 "
+ "-blur 1x65535"
tess_args = "-c debug_file=/dev/null --psm 11 --oem 2"
with self.nested("performing optical character recognition"):
with tempfile.NamedTemporaryFile() as tmpin:
self.send_monitor_command("screendump {}".format(
cmd = "convert {} {} tiff:- | tesseract - - {}".format(
magick_args,, tess_args
ret =, shell=True, capture_output=True)
if ret.returncode != 0:
raise Exception(
"OCR failed with exit code {}".format(ret.returncode)
return ret.stdout.decode("utf-8")
def wait_for_text(self, regex: str) -> None:
def screen_matches(last: bool) -> bool:
text = self.get_screen_text()
matches =, text) is not None
if last and not matches:
self.log("Last OCR attempt failed. Text was: {}".format(text))
return matches
with self.nested("waiting for {} to appear on screen".format(regex)):
def send_key(self, key: str) -> None:
key = CHAR_TO_KEY.get(key, key)
self.send_monitor_command("sendkey {}".format(key))
def start(self) -> None:
if self.booted:
self.log("starting vm")
def create_socket(path: str) -> socket.socket:
if os.path.exists(path):
s = socket.socket(family=socket.AF_UNIX, type=socket.SOCK_STREAM)
return s
monitor_path = os.path.join(self.state_dir, "monitor")
self.monitor_socket = create_socket(monitor_path)
shell_path = os.path.join(self.state_dir, "shell")
self.shell_socket = create_socket(shell_path)
qemu_options = (
" ".join(
"" if self.allow_reboot else "-no-reboot",
"-monitor unix:{}".format(monitor_path),
"-chardev socket,id=shell,path={}".format(shell_path),
"-device virtio-serial",
"-device virtconsole,chardev=shell",
"-device virtio-rng-pci",
"-serial stdio" if "DISPLAY" in os.environ else "-nographic",
+ " "
+ os.environ.get("QEMU_OPTS", "")
environment = dict(os.environ)
"TMPDIR": self.state_dir,
"SHARED_DIR": self.shared_dir,
"USE_TMPDIR": "1",
"QEMU_OPTS": qemu_options,
self.process = subprocess.Popen(
self.monitor, _ = self.monitor_socket.accept(), _ = self.shell_socket.accept()
def process_serial_output() -> None:
assert self.process.stdout is not None
for _line in self.process.stdout:
# Ignore undecodable bytes that may occur in boot menus
line = _line.decode(errors="ignore").replace("\r", "").rstrip()
eprint("{} # {}".format(, line))
self.logger.enqueue({"msg": line, "machine":})
_thread.start_new_thread(process_serial_output, ())
self.wait_for_monitor_prompt() =
self.booted = True
self.log("QEMU running (pid {})".format(
def shutdown(self) -> None:
if not self.booted:
def crash(self) -> None:
if not self.booted:
self.log("forced crash")
def wait_for_x(self) -> None:
"""Wait until it is possible to connect to the X server. Note that
testing the existence of /tmp/.X11-unix/X0 is insufficient.
def check_x(_: Any) -> bool:
cmd = (
"journalctl -b SYSLOG_IDENTIFIER=systemd | "
+ 'grep "Reached target Current graphical"'
status, _ = self.execute(cmd)
if status != 0:
return False
status, _ = self.execute("[ -e /tmp/.X11-unix/X0 ]")
return status == 0
with self.nested("waiting for the X11 server"):
def get_window_names(self) -> List[str]:
return self.succeed(
r"xwininfo -root -tree | sed 's/.*0x[0-9a-f]* \"\([^\"]*\)\".*/\1/; t; d'"
def wait_for_window(self, regexp: str) -> None:
pattern = re.compile(regexp)
def window_is_visible(last_try: bool) -> bool:
names = self.get_window_names()
if last_try:
"Last chance to match {} on the window list,".format(regexp)
+ " which currently contains: "
+ ", ".join(names)
return any( for name in names)
with self.nested("Waiting for a window to appear"):
def sleep(self, secs: int) -> None:
def forward_port(self, host_port: int = 8080, guest_port: int = 80) -> None:
"""Forward a TCP port on the host to a TCP port on the guest.
Useful during interactive testing.
"hostfwd_add tcp::{}-:{}".format(host_port, guest_port)
def block(self) -> None:
"""Make the machine unreachable by shutting down eth1 (the multicast
interface used to talk to the other VMs). We keep eth0 up so that
the test driver can continue to talk to the machine.
self.send_monitor_command("set_link virtio-net-pci.1 off")
def unblock(self) -> None:
"""Make the machine reachable.
self.send_monitor_command("set_link virtio-net-pci.1 on")
def create_machine(args: Dict[str, Any]) -> Machine:
global log
args["log"] = log
args["redirectSerial"] = os.environ.get("USE_SERIAL", "0") == "1"
return Machine(args)
def start_all() -> None:
global machines
with log.nested("starting all VMs"):
for machine in machines:
def join_all() -> None:
global machines
with log.nested("waiting for all VMs to finish"):
for machine in machines:
def test_script() -> None:
def run_tests() -> None:
global machines
tests = os.environ.get("tests", None)
if tests is not None:
with log.nested("running the VM test script"):
exec(tests, globals())
except Exception as e:
eprint("error: {}".format(str(e)))
ptpython.repl.embed(locals(), globals())
# TODO: Collect coverage data
for machine in machines:
if machine.is_up():
def subtest(name: str) -> Iterator[None]:
with log.nested(name):
return True
except Exception as e:
log.log(f'Test "{name}" failed with error: "{e}"')
raise e
return False
if __name__ == "__main__":
arg_parser = argparse.ArgumentParser()
help="re-use a VM state coming from a previous run",
(cli_args, vm_scripts) = arg_parser.parse_known_args()
log = Logger()
vlan_nrs = list(dict.fromkeys(os.environ.get("VLANS", "").split()))
vde_sockets = [create_vlan(v) for v in vlan_nrs]
for nr, vde_socket, _, _ in vde_sockets:
os.environ["QEMU_VDE_SOCKET_{}".format(nr)] = vde_socket
machines = [
create_machine({"startCommand": s, "keepVmState": cli_args.keep_vm_state})
for s in vm_scripts
machine_eval = [
"{0} = machines[{1}]".format(, idx) for idx, m in enumerate(machines)
def clean_up() -> None:
with log.nested("cleaning up"):
for machine in machines:
if is None:
log.log("killing {} (pid {})".format(,
tic = time.time()
toc = time.time()
print("test script finished in {:.2f}s".format(toc - tic))