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===============================================
Release notes for the Genode OS Framework 16.02
===============================================
Genode Labs
With version 16.02, we add RISC-V to Genode's supported CPU architectures,
enable the secure pass-through of individual USB devices to virtual machines,
and update the support for the Muen and seL4 kernels.
Trustworthy hardware becomes an increasingly pressing problem. With each new
generation of today's commodity hardware comes a dramatic increase of
complexity, the addition of proprietary companion processors, and opaque
firmware blobs. Even with a perfectly secure operating system, the user's
privacy and security remains at risk as there is no way to assess the
trustworthiness of our underlying hardware. RISC-V is a new hardware
architecture that tries to overcome this problem by the means of open source
and transparency. It is designed to scale from micro controllers to
general-purpose computers, and to be both synthesizable as FPGA softcores and
implementable in ASICs. The prospect of a scalable and trustworthy open-source
hardware platform motivated us to add RISC-V to Genode's supported CPU
architectures. Section [New support for the RISC-V CPU architecture] gives a
brief overview of this line of work.
Thanks to the growing number of our regular developers using Genode as day to
day OS, we create a natural incentive to address typical desktop-OS work
flows. In particular, the new version comes with the ability to assign
individual USB devices to VirtualBox instances. Conceptually, this looks like
a relatively straight-forward feature. But as discussed in Section
[Assignment of USB devices to virtual machines], we had to overcome a number of
challenging problems caused by the inherently dynamic nature of USB-device
hot-plugging. Also on the account of day-to-day computing, the GUI stack
received welcomed usability improvements like keyboard shortcuts for certain
window-management operations.
With respect to Genode's underlying base platforms, we are happy to announce
the updates of the Muen and seL4 kernels. The Muen separation kernel received
an update to version 0.7, which accommodates Genode's regular work flows (via
run scripts) much better than the previous version. As described in Section
[Muen separation kernel], this change clears the way to subject Muen to
Genode's regular automated tests. The seL4 kernel represents an exciting
playground as a future base platform for Genode. We have updated the kernel to
version 2.1, which prompted us to fundamentally revisit the low-level resource
management of Genode on this kernel. A summary of this undertaking is presented
in Section [seL4 version 2.1].
According to the [http:/about/road-map - road map], we originally planned to
revise the framework API in this release. Even though this topic is
[https://github.com/genodelabs/genode/issues/1832 - very actively pursued], we
decided to not rush it. We find it important to provide a smooth migration path
from the old API to the new one. Determining the best path is actually trickier
than revising the API, though. To let our decisions settle a bit, we postpone
the transition to the upcoming release.
Assignment of USB devices to virtual machines
#############################################
As a migration strategy for running Genode on a daily basis, using VirtualBox
to execute a feature-rich OS is vital. In release
[http://genode.org/documentation/release-notes/15.05#USB-device_pass-through_support - 15.05],
we added USB pass-through support to VirtualBox by enabling its integrated USB
proxy service. Since we use the open-source edition of VirtualBox, we were
merely able to use the OHCI device model and were therefore limited to using
USB 1.x devices in low and full speed mode only. To make matters worse, when
using the OHCI controller model, it is difficult if not impossible to access
USB mass-storage devices. Usually, VirtualBox facilitates the EHCI or xHCI
device models for the pass-through of storage devices. Unfortunately, those
models are only available as a proprietary extension, which cannot be used by
our VirtualBox port.
Having support for the pass-through of high-speed and super-speed USB devices
is a must in such controller models. Therefore, we either have to implement
these models ourselves or port existing ones from another VMM or emulator to
fill the gap. We went for porting existing models first because device-model
development from scratch could end up being time consuming if we want to
guarantee them to work with a variety of different OS drivers.
QEMU xHCI device model
----------------------
QEMU features a NEC xHCI (UPD720200) device model that works well with Windows
guests. For this reason, we decided to give porting this device model a shot.
We applied the DDE approach and started by creating a QEMU emulation
environment so that only the bare minimum amount of source code needed to be
taken from the QEMU sources. It came down to a handful of source files, mainly
the USB core and the xHCI device model files. We iteratively extended the
emulation environment until the QEMU sources compiled and linked fine. One
particular cumbersome issue we had to overcome was the emulation of the QEMU
Object Model. Since QEMU is written in C, it uses its own object model to
implement inheritance. This object model is used throughout QEMU. We took the
easy way out and just used a C++ wrapper class that contains all QEMU objects
that are used in the USB subsystem.
The next step was to develop a USB host device model. This model connects a
USB device attached to Genode's USB host-controller driver to the xHCI device
model. Lucky for us, QEMU already contains a USB host device model that uses
libusb, which we could use as blueprint. We implemented a USB host device that
leverages Genode's custom USB session interface. This host device reacts to a
USB device report coming from another component such as the host-controller
driver. It tries to claim all devices it finds in that report and then creates
a QEMU USB device for each of them that is attached to the xHCI device model.
The xHCI device model needs infrastructure that normally is provided by QEMU
itself such as a timer queue and PCI device handling. We introduced a QEMU
USB controller interface _repos/libports/include/qemu/usb.h_ whose back-end
library interface has to be implemented by a component, i.e. the VMM, that
wants to use the library.
In the end, this work resulted in a small library that contains the xHCI
device model and works in a standalone way. All required resources have to be
provided by the component using the library. This makes it easy to integrate
the library in different VMMs because the user of the library is not forced to
employ the library in a certain way but free to use it any way he chooses.
xHCI device model wrapper in VirtualBox
---------------------------------------
We implemented an xHCI device model _repos/port/src/virtualbox/devxhci.cc_ in
VirtualBox that merely wraps the QEMU USB library and provides the back-end
functionality required by the library to glue QEMU's xHCI device model to
VirtualBox. For now, this device is always part of a VM because there is
currently no way to disable it from within the VirtualBox configuration
front end. Therefore, it is necessary to always give VirtualBox access to a
_usb_devices_ ROM module.
We removed the afore mentioned USB proxy service from our VirtualBox port
because it became redundant with the advent of our xHCI device model.
USB device report filter
------------------------
With the xHCI support in VirtualBox in place, we had to come up with a
mechanism to select, which USB devices it may access. Since USB devices are
usually hot-plugged by the user of the system, we need to be able to configure
the access permissions dynamically at run-time. On this account, we created a
component that intercepts the report from the USB host-controller driver. On
the one hand, this USB device report-filter component screens the device
report coming from the USB host-controller driver by checking each reported
device against a given white list of devices. Only approved devices are
reported to a consumer of the report, i.e. VirtualBox. On the other hand, this
component generates a new configuration for the USB host-controller driver.
The configuration has to be changed each time the filter component finds a
suitable device because the driver will hand out access to a given device to a
client only if there is a valid policy. As we do not know in advance, which
devices might be plugged in, this policy must be maintained dynamically. The
report filter will send the device report only if the host-controller driver
has changed its configuration. This ensures that a matching policy will be in
effect at the time when the client component tries to access the device.
The configuration of the report-filter component can also be changed at run
time.
See _repos/os/src/app/usb_report_filter/README_ for more details on how the
USB device report filter may be configured.
Example configuration
---------------------
The following figure illustrates the interplay and configuration of the
involved components:
[image qemu_xhci]
When the user plugs in a USB device, the USB host-controller driver generates
a device report that is consumed by the USB device report-filter component
(1). The filter component then examines the report and checks if it contains a
device it should report to its report consumer. It then reconfigures the
host-controller driver (2). Afterwards it sends a report to its consumer (3).
The consumer, in this case a VMM, then accesses the USB device (4).
New support for the RISC-V CPU architecture
###########################################
We became aware of [http://riscv.org - RISC-V] when attending several talks
about the project at [https://fosdem.org - FOSDEM] in 2015. RISC-V aims to be
an open-source hardware architecture and is now complemented by many projects
that target the release of real hardware or ASICs (for example,
[http://lowrisc.org - the LowRISC project]). We have experience with various
major CPU architectures and many systems on a chip and, therefore, embrace a
sharp eye on certain platform properties. Intel's ME and ARM's Trustzone
practically lock out operating systems of certain hardware and firmware
features. The true nature of these mechanisms becomes increasingly dubious,
especially when trying to build a secure open-source operating system. Intel's
AMT technology for instance comes with a complete TCP/IP stack that intercepts
packets from the integrated NIC and a VNC server that can magically expose a
mouse and a keyboard at the USB controller. If you are interested in more
details about this topic
[http://blog.invisiblethings.org/papers/2015/x86_harmful.pdf - Intel x86 considered harmful]
by Joanna Rutkowska is a very good read. We decided to have a deeper look at
the RISC-V architecture as an alternative open hardware platform. Especially,
since the LowRISC project promises a completely open system on chip, including
the peripherals.
RISC-V comes with a lot of optional features, so it can cover a large field of
applications reaching from simple I/O processors to general-purpose computing.
For example, there are 64 and 32 bit ISA (instruction set architecture)
versions, three page table formats with the option to omit paging at all, up
to four privilege modes, and a minimal integer core ISA (I). Everything else,
like multiplication and division (M), atomic instructions (A), and floating
point support (F) are subject to ISA extensions and are completely optional
for a specific hardware implementation.
For Genode, we chose to add the RISC-V support to our custom _base-hw_ kernel.
Since Genode may be used as a general purpose OS, we implemented the kernel
using the 64 bit RISC-V version, the Sv39 three-level page table format, and
the so-called general-purpose extension (G), which is the abbreviation for the
IAMF extensions. The current implementation provides the kernel and the
necessary adaptations of the user level part of core.
For testing, we used the RISC-V instruction emulator called
[https://github.com/riscv/riscv-isa-sim - Spike]. There also exists a RISC-V
implementation for various Zynq FPGAs. Genode's Zynq board support has kindly
been added and contributed by Mark Vels.
In the current state, basic Genode applications including core, init, and
components that use shared libraries can be executed on top of our RISC-V
port. We did not enable the libc and postponed further activity as the
platform currently does not specify the interaction with peripherals.
Steps to test Genode on RISC-V
------------------------------
# Building the instruction emulator
! # download the front end server
! git clone https://github.com/ssumpf/riscv-fesvr.git
!
! # build the front end server
! cd riscv-fesvr
! mkdir build
! cd build
! export RISCV=<installation path>
! ../configure --prefix=$RISCV
! (sudo) make install
!
! # download the instruction emulator
! cd ../../
! git clone https://github.com/ssumpf/riscv-isa-sim.git
! cd riscv-isa-sim
!
! # build the emulator
! mkdir build
! cd build
! ../configure --prefix=$RISCV --with-fesvr=$RISCV
! (sudo) make install
!
! # add $RISCV/bin to path
! export PATH=$RISCV/bin:$PATH
# Building Genode and running a test scenario
! # download Genode
! cd ../../
! git clone https://github.com/genodelabs/genode.git
!
! # build the Genode tool chain
! cd genode
! ./tool/tool_chain riscv
!
! # create RISC-V build directory
! ./tool/create_builddir hw_riscv
! cd build/hw_riscv
!
! # build and execute the printf run script
! make run/printf
GUI stack usability improvements
################################
Motivated by the daily use of Genode as desktop OS by an increasingly number
of developers, the window-layouter component of the
[http://genode.org/documentation/release-notes/15.11#GUI_stack - GUI stack]
received welcomed usability improvements.
Configurable window placement
-----------------------------
The policy of the window layouter can be adjusted via its configuration. For
a given window label, the window's initial position and its maximized state
can be defined as follows:
! <config>
! <policy label="mupdf" maximized="yes"/>
! <policy label="nit_fb" xpos="50" ypos="50"/>
! </config>
Keyboard shortcuts
------------------
The window layouter has become able to respond to key sequences. However,
normally, the layouter is not a regular nitpicker client but receives only
those input events that refer to the window decorations. It never owns the
keyboard focus. In order to propagate global key sequences to the layouter,
nitpicker must be explicitly configured to direct key sequences initiated with
certain keys to the decorator. For example, the following nitpicker
configuration routes key sequences starting with the left windows key to the
decorator. The window manager, in turn, forwards those events to the layouter.
! <start name="nitpicker">
! ...
! <config>
! ...
! <global-key name="KEY_LEFTMETA" label="wm -> decorator" />
! ...
! </config>
! ...
! </start>
The response of the window layouter to key sequences can be expressed in the
layouter configuration as follows:
! <config>
! <press key="KEY_LEFTMETA">
! <press key="KEY_TAB" action="next_window">
! <release key="KEY_TAB">
! <release key="KEY_LEFTMETA" action="raise_window"/>
! </release>
! </press>
! <press key="KEY_LEFTSHIFT">
! <press key="KEY_TAB" action="prev_window">
! <release key="KEY_TAB">
! <release key="KEY_LEFTMETA" action="raise_window"/>
! </release>
! </press>
! </press>
! <press key="KEY_ENTER" action="toggle_fullscreen"/>
! </press>
! </config>
Each '<press>' node defines the policy when the specified 'key' is pressed.
It can be equipped with an 'action' attribute that triggers a window action.
The supported window actions are:
:next_window: Focus the next window in the focus history.
:prev_window: Focus the previous window in the focus history.
:raise_window: Bring the focused window to the front.
:toggle_fullscreen: Maximize/unmaximize the focused window.
By nesting '<press>' nodes, actions can be tied to key sequences. In the
example above, the 'next_window' action is executed only if TAB is pressed
while the left windows-key is kept pressed. Furthermore, key sequences can
contain specific release events. In the example above, the release of the left
windows key brings the focused window to front, but only if TAB was pressed
before.
Device drivers
##############
USB host-controller driver enhancements
=======================================
The _usb_drv_ component now solely uses a policy to grant other components
access to USB devices exposed by its raw interface (USB session). On the basis
of the 'label' attribute, it will choose a pre-configured device that is
identified by either the 'bus' and 'dev' or the 'vendor' and 'product'
attribute tuple. To accommodate policy decisions made at run time, the USB
driver is now able to reload its configuration on demand. The USB device
report now contains a 'bus' and a 'dev' attribute as well in order to identify
a USB device more precisely. In addition to that, there is also a generated
'label' attribute in form of 'usb-<bus>-<dev>' that may be used to form
policies while configuring the system dynamically, e.g., when using the
_usb_report_filter_ component.
USB mass-storage driver
=======================
Up to now, access to USB storage devices was provided by the USB
host-controller driver only. However, its ability to do so is limited. E.g.,
it only supports one storage device and the storage device cannot be changed
at run-time. With this release we add a USB mass-storage driver that supports
UMS bulk-only devices that use the SCSI Block Commands set (direct-access).
This is still most common for USB sticks. Devices using different command
sets, e.g SD/HC devices or some external disc drives, will not work properly
if at all. The driver uses the USB session interface to access the USB device
and provides its service as block session to its client.
This component is part of the first step providing the ability to mount and
use USB sticks dynamically when using Genode as a general purpose OS. In the
future, the _usb_drv_ component should solely be the host-controller driver
while other tasks are handled by dedicated USB driver components such as this
one.
Audio output on Linux
=====================
The audio-out driver for Linux was modernized by replacing its multi-threaded
architecture by an event-driven architecture using Genode's server API. In
addition, the playback is now driven by a timer. For now it is a periodic
timer that triggers every 11 ms which is roughly the current audio-out period.
The driver now also behaves like the other BSD-based audio-out driver, i.e.,
it always advances the play pointer. That is vital for the audio-out stack
above the driver to work properly (e.g., the mixer).
Libraries and applications
##########################
New Genode-world repository
===========================
With a growing number of users and contributors comes the desire to bring more
and more existing software to Genode. Most of such libraries and applications,
however, are outside of the scope of Genode as an OS framework. In contrast to
device drivers, protocol stacks, and low-level OS services, which we subject
to our regular automated tests, most 3rd-party software is pretty independent
from Genode. The attempt to integrate the growing pool of such diverse
software into the main repository does not scale.
For this reason, we introduce the new
[https://github.com/genodelabs/genode-world - Genode World] repository, which
is the designated place for hosting ported applications, libraries, and games.
To use it, you first need to obtain a clone of Genode:
! git clone https://github.com/genodelabs/genode.git genode
Now, clone the _genode-world.git_ repository to _genode/repos/world:_
! git clone https://github.com/genodelabs/genode-world.git genode/repos/world
By placing the _world_ repository under the _repos/_ directory, Genode's tools
will automatically incorporate the ports provided by the _world_ repository.
For building software of the _world_ repository, the build-directory
configuration _etc/build.conf_ must be extended with the following line:
! REPOSITORIES += $(GENODE_DIR)/repos/world
*Word of caution*
In contrast to the components found in the mainline Genode repository, the
components within the _world_ repository are not subjected to the regular
quality-assurance measures of Genode Labs. Hence, problems are to be expected.
If you encounter bugs, build problems, or stability issues, please report them
to the [https://github.com/genodelabs/genode-world/issues - issue tracker] or
the [http://genode.org/community/mailing-lists - mailing list].
Updated 3rd-party software
==========================
The following 3rd-party code packages of the _ports_ and _libports_
repositories have been ported or updated:
* Lynx 2.8.8rel.2 (noux package)
* OpenSSH 7.1p1 (noux package)
* tar-1.27 (noux package)
* libssh 0.7.2
* Lighttpd 1.4.38
Platforms
#########
Execution on bare hardware (base-hw)
====================================
Within the last months, the initialization code of our custom kernel got
re-arranged to simplify the addition of new architectures, e.g., the RISC-V
port (Section [New support for the RISC-V CPU architecture]) while also making
its implementation leaner. A positive side effect of this work was the
generalization of multi-processor and L2-cache support for ARM's Cortex-A9
CPUs. For instance, the Wandboard (Freescale i.MX6 SoC) is now driven with all
four cores, and its memory can be accessed with full speed.
Besides those feature additions, we fixed an extremely rare and tricky race
condition in the implementation of the kernel-protected capabilities,
introduced in release 15.05. A capability's lifetime within a component is
tracked by a reference-counting like mechanism that is under control of the
component itself. When the kernel transfered a capability to a component, and
the very same capability was deleted within the component simultaneously, the
received capability was marked as invalid, which led to diverse, sporadic
faults. This deficit in the capabilities reference-counting is solved with the
current release.
Muen separation kernel
======================
Build integration
-----------------
Building Genode scenarios running on top of the
[http://muen.sk - Muen separation kernel] has been greatly simplified by
properly integrating the Muen system build process into the Genode build system.
As described in the
[http://genode.org/documentation/release-notes/15.08#Genode_on_top_of_the_Muen_Separation_Kernel - 15.08 release notes],
the architecture with Muen is different since the entire hw_x86_64_muen Genode
system runs as a guest VM on top of the separation kernel. This means that the
Genode base-hw image must itself be packaged into the final Muen system image
as an additional step after the Genode system build.
The packaging process of a Muen system image is performed by the new
_image/muen_ run-tool plugin, which processes the following RUN_OPT parameters.
:--image-muen-external-build:
Muen system is built automatically or externally
:--image-muen-system:
Muen system policy
:--image-muen-components:
Muen system components required for the given system policy
:--image-muen-hardware:
Muen target hardware platform
:--image-muen-gnat-path:
Path to GNAT toolchain
:--image-muen-spark-path:
Path to SPARK toolchain
The options are automatically added to the _etc/build.conf_ file for the
hw_x86_64_muen base-hw platform. The
[http://genode.org/documentation/platforms/muen - documentation] has been
updated to reflect the new, simplified build process.
A port file was added to facilitate the download of the Muen sources v0.7 and
to check the required dependencies.
Using the new _image/muen_ script in combination with iPXE allows to run the
Genode test suite via the autopilot tool.
MSI support
-----------
Muen employs Intel VT-d interrupt remapping (IR) besides DMA remapping for
secure device assignment. As a consequence, PCI devices using Message Signaled
Interrupts (MSI) must be programmed to trigger requests in remappable format
(see Intel VT-d specification, Section 5.1.2.2 for further details).
To enable the use of MSIs with the base-hw kernel, a platform-specific
function has been introduced that returns the necessary MSI parameters for a
given PCI device. If either the platform or the specific device does not
support MSI, the function returns false.
On hw_x86_64_muen, the function consults the Muen subject info page to supply
the appropriate information to the IRQ session. This allows Genode device
drivers to transparently use MSIs for passed-through PCI devices.
seL4 version 2.1
================
By the end of 2015, the [http://sel4.systems/ - seL4 kernel] version 2.0 was
published. With the current release, we update Genode's preliminary support
for this kernel from the experimental branch of one year ago to the master
branch of version 2.1. Note that this line of work is still considered as an
exploration. As of now, there is still a way to go until we can leverage seL4
as a fully featured base platform. Under the hood of Genode, the transition to
the version 2.1 master branch had the following implications.
In contrast to the experimental branch, the seL4 master branch has no way to
manually define the allocation of kernel objects within untyped memory ranges.
Instead, the kernel maintains a built-in allocation policy. This policy rules
out the deallocation of once-used parts of untyped memory. The only way to
reuse memory is to revoke the entire untyped memory range. Consequently, we
cannot share a large untyped memory range for kernel objects of different
protection domains. In order to reuse memory at a reasonably fine granularity,
we need to split the initial untyped memory ranges into small chunks that can
be individually revoked. Those chunks are called "untyped pages". An untyped
page is a 4 KiB untyped memory region.
The bootstrapping of core has to employ a two-stage allocation approach now.
For creating the initial kernel objects for core, which remain static during
the entire lifetime of the system, kernel objects are created directly out of
the initial untyped memory regions as reported by the kernel. The so-called
"initial untyped pool" keeps track of the consumption of those untyped memory
ranges by mimicking the kernel's internal allocation policy. Kernel objects
created this way can be of any size. For example the CNode, which is used to
store page-frame capabilities is 16 MiB in size. Also, core's CSpace uses a
relatively large CNode.
After the initial setup phase, all remaining untyped memory is turned into
untyped pages. From this point on, newly created kernel objects cannot exceed
4 KiB in size because one kernel object cannot span multiple untyped memory
regions. The capability selectors for untyped pages are organized similarly to
those of page-frame capabilities. There is a new 2nd-level CNode
(UNTYPED_CORE_CNODE) that is dimensioned according to the maximum amount of
physical memory (1M entries, each entry representing 4 KiB). The CNode is
organized such that an index into the CNode directly corresponds to the
physical frame number of the underlying memory. This way, we can easily
determine an untyped page selector for any physical addresses, i.e., for
revoking the kernel objects allocated at a specific physical page. The
downside is the need for another 16 MiB chunk of meta data. Also, we need to
keep in mind that this approach won't scale to 64-bit systems. We will
eventually need to replace the PHYS_CORE_CNODE and UNTYPED_CORE_CNODE by CNode
hierarchies to model a sparsely populated CNode. The following figure
illustrates the layout of core's capability space.
[image sel4_core_cspace_master]
Organization of core's capability space on seL4
For each protection domain, core maintains a so-called VM CSpace that holds
capability selectors for page frames and page tables. The size constraint of
kernel objects has the immediate implication that the VM CSpaces of protection
domains must be organized via several levels of CNodes. I.e., as the top-level
CNode of core has a size of 2^12, the remaining 20 PD-specific CSpace address
bits are organized as a 2nd-level 2^4 padding CNode, a 3rd-level 2^8 CNode,
and several 4th-level 2^8 leaf CNodes. The latter contain the actual selectors
for the page tables and page-table entries of the respective PD.
As another slight difference from the experimental branch, the master branch
requires the explicit assignment of page directories to an ASID pool.
Functionality-wise the update to version 2.1 brings no changes. The
preliminary support is still limited to Genode's most fundamental mechanisms
like the bootstrapping, the creation of protection domains, the execution of
threads, and inter-component communication. User-level device drivers are not
supported yet. Such functional improvements are scheduled for Genode 16.08.
Linux
=====
We started to experience crashes of our dynamic linker (ldso) when using
Genode's _base-linux_ platform on recent Linux kernels. Ldso is primarily a
shared object, which is linked to dynamic binaries. But ldso is also an
executable, which, once started loads the dynamically-linked binary along with
all shared libraries required by the binary. Up to now, ldso had to be loaded
at a link address defined at compilation time, which we enforced through
linker-script magic. Unfortunately, this does not work any longer on recent
Linux versions. The kernel notices that ldso is a shared object and loads it
at an arbitrary (randomized) address, which ultimately results in a
segmentation fault during ldso initialization. We found a fix for this issue
by marking ldso as an executable in the ELF header. But since ldso is linked
to all dynamic binaries (it contains Genode's base libraries) the GNU linker
then refused to link because ldso was not marked as a shared object.
Therefore, we decided to implement true self relocation within ldso. This
feature only works on Genode's base-linux platform as it requires some
symbol-address magic.